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What are the (4) FOUR conditions required for deadlocks to occur?


What are the  necessary conditions required for deadlocks to occur in operating system



In an operating system, a deadlock occurs when a process or thread enters a waiting state because a requested system resource is held by another waiting process, which in turn is waiting for another resource held by another waiting process. If a process is unable to change its state indefinitely because the resources requested by it are being used by another waiting process, then the system is said to be in a deadlock.

In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for some other member to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.Deadlock is a common problem in multiprocessing systems, parallel computing, and distributed systems, where software and hardware locks are used to handle shared resources and implement process synchronization.

The four necessary conditions to occur deadlock

  1. Mutual exclusion

        A mutual exclusion (mutex) is a program object that prevents simultaneous access to a shared resource. This concept is used in concurrent programming with a critical section, a piece of code in which processes or threads access a shared resource.
        If a resource is shareable and can be accessed by more than one process at the same time. Then it leads to deadlock.
  2. Hold and wait or partial allocation

        The processes must hold the resources they have already been allocated while waiting for other (requested) resources. If the process had to release its resources when a new resource or resources were requested, deadlock could not occur because the process would not prevent others from using resources that it controlled.
  3. No preemption

        The processes must not have resources taken away while that resource is being used. Otherwise, deadlock could not occur since the operating system could simply take enough resources from running processes to enable any process to finish.
        Preemption means: In computing, preemption is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time. Such changes of the executed task are known as context switches. It is normally carried out by a privileged task or part of the system known as a preemptive scheduler, which has the power to preempt, or interrupt, and later resume, other tasks in the system.
  4. Circular wait

        each process must be waiting for a resource which is being held by another process, which in turn is waiting for the first process to release the resource. In general, there is a set of waiting processes, P = {P1, P2, …, PN}, such that P1 is waiting for a resource held by P2, P2 is waiting for a resource held by P3 and so on until PN is waiting for a resource held by P1
  • answered 5 years ago
  • Sunny Solu

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